Every database has secondary indexes, right? Not quite. It turns out that some databases don’t support them. Secondary indexes are important because they make it possible to perform more, quick, queries on a given chunk of data. What if we want to add secondary indexes to a database, how would we go about doing it?
Looking at queries, there are a few basic ways that we actually query data:
- Equality predicates
- Inequality predicates
- Multi-predicate queries
We’re going to be using Riak as our example database
The easiest type of query is an equality predicate. With an equality predicate, we’re just matching any given search term. Looking at an example, what if we want to find every user born on July 4, 1976?
With an RDBMS, we’d just create an index on the table to support our queries. But with a key-value store, we don’t have that ability. How do we do it?
To create an index in Riak, we’d create another bucket,. The keys for this bucket would be the value of the birthdate. We could use links (this will fall apart pretty rapidly above about 1000 links) or store a list of keys in the bucket. To satisfy our MapReduce query we can use the bucket to get the IDs of our users for retrieval rather than scanning the entire bucket. Depending on the amount of data we have, being able to use equality predicates could reduce the number of reads we have to perform.
Multi-Predicate Equality Searches
I’m going to skip inequality predicates for a second and talk about multi-predicate equality searches. This is easy to accomplish. If we’re searching for everyone with the last name of ‘Smith’ who was born on July 4th, 1976 we might use the following MapReduce function:
With a relational database, we could create a multi-column index. That isn’t possible here – with Riak we only have a bucket name (the index name), a key (the key), a value.
Two Equality Buckets
One option would be to use two equality buckets and then perform a bitwise comparison of the results, only keeping user keys that exist in both buckets. In this case, we would have two buckets and. The problem is that we might have large data skew on one of these key-value combinations. So, if there are only 1,000 users born on July 4th, 1976 and 1,000,000 Smiths in our database, this could cause some inefficiencies in our queries when we go to merge the two result sets. Worse, there could be 1,000,000 users that match our search conditions in each bucket, but only 10 in common.
Using a bitwise combination of two buckets is, from a development standpoint, the easiest way to implement multi-predicate comparison. However, this approach creates problems with any significant volume of data.
MapReduce Over An Index Bucket
What if instead of using two or more buckets and performing a bitwise comparison of the keys that we find, instead we create a single index bucket. Inside that bucket, we’ll still use one value as the key for each key-value pair. This would look like the bucket – every key-value pair has the birthdate as the key.
Each key contains a list of values. Unlike our first example we’re going to store more than a simple list of keys. Instead we’re going to store a list of lists of tuples – a multi-dimensional data structure. If we’re using the birthdate, last name example, it might look like this:
What does this buy us? Well, for starters we don’t have to perform bitwise comparisons between two or more potentially massive lists of keys. Instead we can examine the MapReduce query that’s coming in and re-write it on the fly to give us a MapReduce job over our new index. The upside of this index is that it can perform double duty; we can search for users by birthdate or by birthdate and last name.
One of the things that we need to consider when we’re designing our key-value database is the queries that we’re going to be running, not the way that the data should be structured. When we’re structuring our data, it may make more sense to use a complex data structure, like this index bucket, instead of many single column indexes. Updates to the data will require fewer updates with this model. Only one write is needed when a user signs up, not two; one for the compound index as opposed to two for the simple indexes – one for and one for .
Once we start updating data using an index bucket can reduce index maintenance. When we update a record we’ll need to update any index buckets. This could lead to a large number of data writes, tombstone writes, and compactions over time. Using a single index bucket with more complex structure in the index removes the need for a large number of writes. We only have to write to the original key-value pair as well as writing to the index bucket.
Inequality predicates are much trickier than equality predicates. At first glance it seems like it would be easy to perform a MapReduce over the keys and determine which key-value pairs meet the search conditions. And we would be right: that is an easy solution when there are a small number of keys. What happens when there are a large number of keys? We need to read more data to get to the results we need. Digging further, what happens when very little of our data actually matches? The benefits of using this approach become very slim; we need to perform a large number of reads to retrieve very little data.
There’s a trick to implementing inequality predicates: in some cases it will be faster to retrieve all keys that match our inequality predicate – birthdate between 1976-07-01 and 1976-07-31. In other cases, a scan is going to be faster – users with a last name starting with ‘A’.
How do we figure out which approach is going to be faster? Let’s take a look at a concrete example using users and birthdates for our example. We already know how to find every user with a specific birthdate using an index; that’s a simple seek. How do we find all users whose birthday falls between a range of dates? That’s what we’ve been asking all along, right?
What if we maintain some simple information about our index? Let’s say we track the minimum value, the maximum value, and the number of keys in the bucket. Just from this information we can guess roughly how many keys will be in any given range. This is pretty easy with dates; we can assume that there’s a an even distribution of birthdates in any range of dates.
Things get trickier with names. How many distinct last names are there between Aaronson and Bartleby? What about between Xara and Yoder? Knowing the min and max last names and the number of keys won’t help us figure out the distribution; the data isn’t uniformly distributed. We need a way to make educated guesses about the data in a range. One way to do this is to create a histogram of our data. Histograms are data samplings that let us make better guesses about the number of specific values we can expect to find in a given range.
Relational databases accomplish this by maintaining separate statistics tables. We can accomplish something similar in Riak by creating a new bucket of statistics where the stats key is the high value of a range of keys. The value of the key-value pair would be data about the range of values – number of rows, number of keys, and the average number of distinct values per key. We want to collect statistics so we can easily determine when we need to seek a small number of keys and when we need to perform a MapReduce over the bucket.
So far I’ve proposed two range search approaches that work well with different use cases. Ideally we could create an indexing mechanism in Riak that lets us state an assumption about the distribution of our data in Riak. If we know there’s a constant distribution of keys, we can skip any kind of heuristics and just assume that for July, we’ll be reading 31 keys. Likewise, if we want to pull back every user whose last name is between Scalia and Smith, then we’ll need to MapReduce over the index bucket to get the data that we need.
Creating Indexes – Simple Indexes
Simple, single column indexes are easy to create. The syntax to create an index with SQL is pretty straightforward:
With Riak, we won’t need that much information about the index. Working from the simplest use case possible, we only need
- index name
- value name to index
- data storage mechanism
We need to uniquely name our index, otherwise we can’t create a new bucket for it. Likewise, we have to know which bucket we’re indexing. It also makes sense that we want to know which value we’ll be indexing.
We need to define the data storage mechanism for indexes so we are able to index the data. It’s for the same reason that we have to tell Riak Search how the data is stored; unless we know what we’re indexing, it’s impossible to index it.
Looking at , it should be possible to re-use the basic principles behind and to define how indexes are created and how data is retrieved. When we create a full-text index with Riak search, we supply the datatype (JSON, XML, plain-text, or something else). This gives us an incredible amount of flexibility without having to define a schema for the documents. We’re only indexing the fields we want. This can be incredibly useful if we’re storing larger objects but we know we’ll only perform look ups on a few fields – indexing time and space is reduced drastically.
Re-using the full-text index model for secondary indexes makes it easy to maintain consistent indexing behavior throughout Riak – all of our indexes (full-text or otherwise) can be defined using the same commands.
Creating Indexes – Complex Indexes
Complex indexes shouldn’t be much more difficult to implement than simple indexes. We only need one additional piece of information to collect our index: additional fields to index. Ideally the additional fields would be a text representation of how we access the fields in a program – “parent.child.property”. Supporting XML could make this trickier, but it should be easy to use XQuery/XPath to determine which XML elements, attributes, and values should be indexed. The intelligence of knowing how to perform the query will come later; indexes don’t need to know how to query themselves.
Staying up to Date
Right now, this index will only be accurate once: when we create it. Once again, we can borrow from the Riak Search implementation and create hooks to make sure the index is kept up to date as data is written. Keeping our indexes in sync with the data will cause some overhead on the cluster, but it’s worth it to know that we can accurately retrieve data. Like any other database, we need to take care not to create too many indexes: every write to the bucket means we end up writing to each index.
The Trouble with Data Locality
One potential problem we can run into is data locality. Depending on how the data is distributed in the key space, we could end up writing key-value and index data on the same physical node. The problem is that we could double, or more, the physical I/O that we’re performing on those nodes. If an index is not on the same node as the data we might incur tremendous network overhead querying remote indexes before querying data on the local node. On a busy network, this increased bandwidth could have an adverse effect on operations.
Driving Toward Our Goal
We’re clearly heading toward something. Let’s take stock of what we’ve talked about so far:
There are two types of search predicate to support
- Equality predicates – easy to index
- Inequality predicates – trickier to index
There several ways to use indexes
- A single index
- Multiple indexes with a bitwise comparison
- Complex indexes
We can read from indexes through
- Key seeks
- Key scans (MapReduce)
- Key/value scans (MapReduce)
We can figure out what type of read to use by using data statistics
- Uniformly distributed keys are easy
- Randomly distributed keys are harder
- A small number of seeks can be more efficient than a single MapReduce
Astute readers will have probably guess what we need: a query engine.
This Ain’t No Car, It’s a Key-Value Store!
Why do we need a query engine? Key-value stores are simple; data is stored in key-value pairs and retrieved by a simple key lookup. A query engine of some type just adds complexity, right? Well, without a query engine, we can’t use secondary indexes without explicitly writing queries to use them.
In a hypothetical Riak query engine, we could process a MapReduce query like this:
Parse map phases and extract search conditions
Examine existing indexes
- Do indexes exist?
- Examine index type – evaluate statistics if needed
- Evaluate data access path needed to retrieve data – this is where we determine if we can use one index, multiple indexes with a bitwise compare, or use a multi-column index
- If no indexes exist, does a full-text index exist?
Re-write MapReduce functions on-the-fly
- Early Map phases are added to query use indexes
- Early Map phase output is used for key selection in MapReduce functions
While Riak doesn’t need anything as complex as an RDBMS’s query engine, this is still a gross simplification of how a query engine would function – additional functionality is needed to perform costing estimates of seeks vs MapReduce scans, statistics will need analyzed, and the query engine will need to be aware of vast portions of Riak in order to make good guesses so it can re-write MapReduce queries on the fly.
Features, Features, Features
I left some topics out of this discussion intentionally. They don’t directly apply to implementing indexes, but they would be very helpful to have down the road.
- Checking updated values to avoid needless tombstones. When a client updates a key with the same value it had before, there’s no reason to overwrite the stored value: nothing changed.
- Saving query plans. We are re-writing MapReduce queries on the fly, why not save them off internally and opt to store them for re-use when the cluster comes online?
- Missing indexes. Frequently used queries should be optimized, either with secondary indexes for faster querying or as standalone entities in Riak. THe easiest way to monitor for this is to store metadata about the query history.
- Index use data. How often are our indexes being used? Do they meet our needs or should we replace them with different indexes?
- Index only queries. If a MapReduce can be satisfied by the data in the index, don’t query the main bucket.
- Running statistics. Riak is a long running process. Over time we will be able to collect a lot of data about Riak. Why not collect data about how our Riak is being used so we can tune our code and hardware to get better performance?
Summing it all Up
Indexing is a tricky thing to think about and an even trickier thing to get right. When I first started on this as a thought experiment, I thought that it was going to be easy. Assuming that indexes are simple led to a lot of dead ends, frustration, and restarts. This came about from talking to Mark Phillips (blog |twitter) and Dan Reverri (twitter) last week at the Basho offices about Riak, HTML, and the sound of farm machinery pulling itself apart.
Sound off in the comments.
TL;DR version – indexes are hard, let’s go shopping.
- What are the dangers of water fasting
- What POS are you using and why
- How do I start Android software development
- Why do you appreciate Canada
- Whats it like to attend a megachurch
- How does a transposing guitar capo work
- Can you make sense of my sexuality
- What would happen if Poland disappeared
- How does one scientifically validate Ayurveda
- Is Rick and Morty the new Futurama
- What is Warfarin
- How can I work for IBM
- What are some examples of stratification
- Is going to Harvard overrated
- Can a person attain moksha without meditation